1. Galaburda, A. M., and T. L. Kemper. 1979. Cytoarchitectonic abnormalities in developmental dyslexia; a case study. Ann. Neurol. 6:94–100.

2. Galaburda, A. M., G. F. Sherman, G. D. Rosen, F. Aboitiz, and N. Geschwind. 1985. Developmental dyslexia: Four consecutive cases with cortical anomalies. Ann. Neurol. 18:222–233.

3. Humphreys, P., W. E. Kaufmann, and A. M. Galaburda. 1990. Developmental dyslexia in women: Neuropathological findings in three cases. Ann. Neurol. 28:727–738.

4. Humphreys, P., G. D. Rosen, D. M. Press, G. F. Sherman, and A. M. Galaburda. 1991. Freezing lesions of the newborn rat brain: A model for cerebrocortical microgyria. J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol. 50:145–160.

5. Rosen, G. D., G. F. Sherman, J. M. Richman, L. V. Stone, and A. M. Galaburda. 1992. Induction of molecular layer ectopias by puncture wounds in newborn rats and mice. Dev. Brain Res. 67:285–291.

6. Rosen, G. D., D. M. Press, G. F. Sherman, and A. M. Galaburda. 1992. The development of induced cerebrocortical microgyria in the rat. J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol. 51:601–611.

7. Dvorák, K., and J. Feit. 1977. Migration of neuroblasts through partial necrosis of the cerebral cortex in newborn rats—contribution to the problems of morphological development and developmental period of cerebral microgyria. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 38:203–212.

8. Dvorák, K., J. Feit, and Z. Juránková. 1978. Experimentally induced focal microgyria and status verrucosus deformis in rats—Pathogenesis and interrelation histological and autoradiographical study. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 44:121–129.

9. Suzuki, M., and B. H. Choi. 1991. Repair and reconstruction of the cortical plate following closed cryogenic injury to the neonatal rat cerebrum. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl) 82:93–101.

10. Ferrer, I., S. Alcántara, I. Catala, and M. J. Zujar. 1993. Experimentally induced laminar necrosis, status verrucosus, focal cortical dysplasia reminiscent of microgyria, and porencephaly in the rat. Exp. Brain Res. 94:261–269.

11. Marret, S., R. Mukendi, J. Gadisseux, P. Gressens, and P. Evrard. 1995. Effect of ibotenate on brain development: An excitotoxic mouse model of microgyria and postthypoxic-like lesions. J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol. 54:358–370.

>12. Rosen, G. D., N. S. Waters, A. M. Galaburda, and V. H. Denenberg. 1995. Behavioral consequences of neonatal injury of the neocortex. Brain Res. 681:177–189.

13. Schrott, L. M., L. Morrison, R. Wimer, C. Wimer, P. O. Behan, and V. H. Denenberg. 1994. Autoimmunity and avoidance learning in NXRF recombinant inbred strains. Brain Behav. Immun. 8:100–110.

14. Schrott, L. M., N. S. Waters, G. W. Boehm, G. F. Sherman, L. Morrison, G. D. Rosen, P. O. Behan, A. M. Galaburda, and V. H. Denenberg. 1993. Behavior, cortical ectopias, and autoimmunity in BXSB-Yaa and BXSB-Yaa+ mice. Brain Behav. Immun. 7:205–223.

15. Schrott, L. M., V. H. Denenberg, G. F. Sherman, G. D. Rosen, and A. M. Galaburda. 1992. Lashley maze learning deficits in NZB mice. Physiol Behav 52:1085–9.

16. Denenberg, V. H., G. F. Sherman, L. Morrison, L. M. Schrott, N. S. Waters, G. D. Rosen, P. O. Behan, and A. M. Galaburda. 1992. Behavior, ectopias and immunity in BD/DB reciprocal crosses. Brain Res. 571:323–329.

17. Schrott, L. M., V. H. Denenberg, G. F. Sherman, N. S. Waters, G. D. Rosen, and A. M. Galaburda. 1992. Environmental enrichment, neocortical ectopias, and behavior in the autoimmune NZB mouse. Dev. Brain Res. 67:85–93.

18. Denenberg, V. H., G. F. Sherman, L. M. Schrott, G. D. Rosen, and A. M. Galaburda. 1991. Spatial learning, discrimination learning, paw preference and neocortical ectopias in two autoimmune strains of mice. Brain Res. 562:98–104.

19. Slaghuis, W. L., W. J. Lovegrove, and J. A. Davidson. 1993. Visual and language processing deficits are concurrent in dyslexia. Cortex 29:601–615.

20. Lovegrove, W., R. Garzia, and S. Nicholson. 1990. Experimental evidence for a transient system deficit in specific reading disability. J. Amer. Optomet. Assoc. 2:137–146.

21. Martin, F., and W. Lovegrove. 1987. Flicker contrast sensitivity in normal and specifically disabled readers. Perception 16:215–221.

22. Williams, M. C., K. Lecluyse, and N. Bologna. 1990. Masking by light as a measure of visual integration time in normal and disabled readers. Clin. Vision. Sci. 5:335–343.

23. Livingstone, M., G. Rosen, F. Drislane, and A. Galaburda. 1991. Physiological and anatomical evidence for a magnocellular defect in developmental dyslexia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88:7943–7947.

24. Eden, G. F., J. W. Vanmeter, J. M. Rumsey, J. M. Maisog, R. P. Woods, and T. A. Zeffiro. 1996. Abnormal processing of visual motion in dyslexia revealed by functional brain imaging. Nature 382:66–69.

25. Tallal, P., and M. Piercy. 1973. Defects of non-verbal auditory perception in children with developmental aphasia. Nature 241:468–469.

26. Tallal, P., S. Miller, and R. H. Fitch. 1993. Neurobiological basis of speech: a case for the preeminence of temporal processing. Pages 27-47 in Tallal, P., A. M. Galaburda, R. Llinas, and C. von Euler, Ed., Temporal Information Processing in the Nervous System, with Special Reference to Dyslexia and Dysphasia. New York Academy of Sciences, New York.

27. Galaburda, A. M., and D. Eidelberg. 1982. Symmetry and asymmetry in the human posterior thalamus. II. Thalamic lesions in a case of developmental dyslexia. Arch Neurol 39:333–336.

28. Galaburda, A. M., M. T. Menard, and G. D. Rosen. 1994. Evidence for aberrant auditory anatomy in developmental dyslexia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91:8010–8013.

29. McBride, M. C., and T. L. Kemper. 1982. Pathogenesis of four-layered microgyric cortex in man. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 57:93–98.

30. Fitch, R. H., P. Tallal, C. Brown, A. M. Galaburda, and G. D. Rosen. 1994. Induced microgyria and auditory temporal processing in rats: A model for language impairment? Cereb. Cortex 4:260–270.

31. Fitch, R. H., C. P. Brown, P. Tallal, and G. D. Rosen. 1997. Effects of sex and MK-801 on auditory-processing deficits associated with developmental microgyric lesions in rats. Behav. Neurosci. 111:404–412.

32. Fitch, R. H., C. P. Brown, K. O'Connor, and P. Tallal. 1993. Functional lateralization for auditory temporal processing in male and female rats. Behav. Neurosci. 107:844–850.

33. Sherman, G. F., A. M. Galaburda, P. O. Behan, and G. D. Rosen. 1987. Neuroanatomical anomalies in autoimmune mice. Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin) 74:239–242.

34. Gundersen, H. J. G., and E. B. Jensen. 1987. The efficiency of systematic sampling in stereology and its prediction. J. Microscop. 147:229–263.

35. Rosen, G. D., and J. D. Harry. 1990. Brain volume estimation from serial section measurements: A comparison of methodologies. J. Neurosci. Meth. 35:115–124.

36. Zilles, K. 1985. The Cortex of the Rat: A Stereotaxic Atlas. Pages 121, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

37. Williams, R. W., and P. Rakic. 1988. Three-dimensional counting: An accurate and direct method to estimate numbers of cells in sectioned material. J. Comp. Neurol. 278:344–352.

38. Winer, J. A. 1991. Anatomy of the medial geniculate body. Pages 293–333 in Altschuler, R. A., D. W. Hoffman, R. P. Bobbin, and B. M. Clopton, Ed., Neurobiology of Hearing: The Central Auditory System. Raven Press, Ltd., New York.

39. Nicolelis, M. A. L., J. K. Chapin, and R. C. S. Lin. 1991. Neonatal whisker removal in rats stabilizes a transient projection from the auditory thalamus to the primary somatosensory cortex. Brain Res. 567:133–139.

40. Innocenti, G. M., and P. Berbel. 1991. Analysis of an experimental cortical network: i) Architectonics of visual areas 17 and 18 after neonatal injections of ibotenic acid; similarities with human microgyria. J. Neur. Transplant. 2:1–28.

41. Innocenti, G. M., and P. Berbel. 1991. Analysis of an experimental cortical network: ii) Connections of visual areas 17 and 18 after neonatal injections of ibotenic acid. J. Neur. Transplant. 2:29–54.

42. Schneider, G. E. 1981. Early lesions and abnormal neuronal connections. Trends Neurosci. 4:187–192.

43. Schneider, G. E. 1979. Is it really better to have your brain lesion early? A revision of the "Kennard principle". Neuropsychologia 17:557–583.

44. Finlay, B. L., K. G. Wilson, and G. E. Schneider. 1979. Anomalous ipsilateral retinotectal projections in Syrian hamsters with early lesions: topography and functional capacity. J. Comp. Neurol. 183:721–740.

45. Miller, B., D. Nagy, B. L. Finlay, B. Chance, A. Kobayashi, and S. Nioka. 1993. Consequences of reduced cerebral blood flow in brain development. I. Gross Morphology, histology, and callosal connectivity. Exp. Neurol. 124:326–42.

46. Rosen, G. D., A. M. Galaburda, and G. F. Sherman. 1989. Cerebrocortical microdysgenesis with anomalous callosal connections: A case study in the rat. Int. J. Neurosci. 47:237–247.

47. Finucci, J. M., S. D. Isaacs, C. C. Whitehouse, and B. Childs. 1983. Classification of spelling errors and their relationship to reading ability, sex, grade placement, and intelligence. Brain Lang. 20:340–345.

48. Liederman, J., and K. A. Flannery. 1993. Male prevalence for reading disability is found in a large sample free from ascertainment bias. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 19:1462.

49. Shaywitz, S., B. Shaywitz, J. Fletcher, and M. Escobar. 1990. Prevalence of reading disability in boys and girls. JAMA 264:998–1002.

50. Gualtieri, T., and R. E. Hicks. 1985. An immunoreactive theory of selective male affliction. Behav. Brain Sci. 8:427–441.

51. Hall, E. D., K. E. Pazara, and K. L. Linseman. 1991. Sex differences in postischemic neuronal necrosis in gerbils. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 11:292–298.

52. Raz, S., M. D. Lauterbach, T. L. Hopkins, B. K. Glogowski, and C. L. Porter. 1995. A female advantage in cognitive recovery from early cerebral insult. Dev. Psychol. 31:958–966.

53. Goldman, P. S., H. T. Crawford, L. P. Stokes, T. W. Galkin, and H. E. Rosvold. 1974. Sex-dependent behavioral effects of cerebral cortical lesions in the developing rhesus monkey. Science 186:540–2.

54. Sohrabji, F., R. C. Miranda, and C. D. Toran-Allerand. 1994. Estrogen differentially regulates estrogen and nerve growth factor receptor mRNAs in adult sensory neurons. J Neurosci 14:459–71.

55. Sohrabji, F., L. A. Greene, R. C. Miranda, and C. D. Toran-Allerand. 1994. Reciprocal regulation of estrogen and NGF receptors by their ligands in PC12 cells. J Neurobiol 25:974–88.