1. Broca, P. 1861. Remarques sur le siège de la faculté du langage articulé, suives d'une observation d'aphemie. Bull. Soc. Anat. Paris 6:398–407.
2. Springer, S.P., and Deutsch, G. 1993. Left Brain, Right Brain. Pages 368, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
3. Schlaug, G., Jäncke, L., Huang, Y.X., and Steinmetz, H. 1995. In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians. Science 267:699–701.
4. Molfese, D.L., Freeman, R.B., and Palermo, D.S. 1975. The ontogeny of brain lateralization for speech and nonspeech stimuli. Brain Lang. 2:356–368.
5. Entus, A.K. 1977. Hemipsheric asymmetry in processing of dichotically presented speech and nonspeech stimuli by infants. Pages 64–74 in Segalowitz, S.J., and Gruber, F.A., Ed., Language Development and Neurological Theory. Academic Press, New York.
6. Michel, G.F. 1981. Right-handedness: a consequence of infant supine head-orientation preference. Science 212:685–687.
7. Geschwind, N., and Levitsky, W. 1968. Human brain: Left-right asymmetries in temporal speech region. Science 161:186–187.
8. Teszner, D., Tzavaras, A., Gruner, J., and Hécaen, H. 1972. L'asymmétrie droite-gauche du planum temporale: A propos de l'étude anatomique de 100 cervaeux. Rev. Neurol. 126:444–449.
9. Witelson, S.F., and Kigar, D.L. 1992. Sylvian fissure morphology and asymmetry in men and women: Bilateral differences in relation to handedness in men. J. Comp. Neurol. 323:326–340.
10. Witelson, S.F., and Pallie, W. 1973. Left hemisphere specialization for language in the newborn: Neuroanatomical evidence of asymmetry. Brain 96:641–646.
11. Wada, J.A., Clarke, R., and Hamm, A. 1975. Cerebral hemispheric asymmetry in humans. Arch. Neurol. 32:239–246.
12. Rubens, A.B., Mahowald, M.W., and Hutton, J.T. 1976. Asymmetry of lateral (sylvian) fissures in man. Neurology 26:620–624.
13. Chi, J.G., Dooling, E.C., and Gilles, F.H. 1977. Gyral development of the human brain. Ann. Neurol. 1:86–93.
14. Pieniadz, J.M., and Naeser, M.A. 1984. Computed tomographic scan cerebral asymmetries and morphological brain asymmetries: Correlation in the same cases post mortem. Arch. Neurol. 41:403–409.
15. Steinmetz, H., Rademacher, J., Huang, Y.X., Hefter, H., Zilles, K., Thron, A., and Freund, H.J. 1989. Cerebral asymmetry - MR planimetry of the human planum temporale. J. Comput. Assist. Tomog. 13:996–1005.
16. Aboitiz, F., Scheibel, A.B., and Zaidel, E. 1992. Morphometry of the sylvian fissure and the corpus callosum, with emphasis on sex differences. Brain 115:1521–1541.
17. Steinmetz, H., Volkmann, J., Jäncke, L., and Freund, H.J. 1991. Anatomical left-right asymmetry of language-related temporal cortex is different in left-handers and right-handers. Ann. Neurol. 29:315–319.
18. Eidelberg, D., and Galaburda, A.M. 1984. Inferior parietal lobule. Divergent architectonic asymmetries in the human brain. Arch. Neurol. 41:843–852.
19. Galaburda, A.M., Sanides, F., and Geschwind, N. 1978. Human brain: Cytoarchitectonic left-right asymmetries in the temporal speech region. Arch. Neurol. 35:812–817.
20. Nottebohm, F. 1976. Neural lateralization of vocal control in a passerine bird. J. Exp. Zool. 177:229–262.
21. Nottebohm, F. 1972. Neural lateralization of vocal control in a passerine bird. II. Subsong, calls, and theory of vocal learning. J. Exp. Zool. 179:35–50.
22. Nottebohm, F. 1971. Neural lateralization of vocal control in a passerine bird. I. Song. J. Exp. Zool. 177:229–262.
23. Nottebohm, F., and Nottebohm, M.E. 1976. Left hypoglossal dominance in the control of canary and white-crowned sparrow song. J. Comp. Physiol. 108:171–192.
24. Petersen, M.R., Beecher, M.D., Zoloth, S., Moody, D.B., and Stebbins, W.C. 1978. Neural lateralization of species-specific vocalizations by Japanese macaques (macaca fuscata). Science 202:324–327.
25. Denenberg, V.H. 1981. Hemispheric laterality in animals and the effects of early experience. Behav. Brain Sci. 4:1–49.
26. Sherman, G.F., Garbanati, J.A., Rosen, G.D., Yutzey, D.A., and Denenberg, V.H. 1980. Brain and behavioral asymmetries for spatial preference in rats. Brain Res. 192:61–67.
27. Denenberg, V.H., Garbanati, J., Sherman, G., Yutzey, D.A., and Kaplan, R. 1978. Infantile stimulation induces brain lateralization in rats. Science 201:1150–1152.
28. Denenberg, V.H., Rosen, G.D., Hofmann, M., Gall, J., Stockler, J., and Yutzey, D.A. 1982. Neonatal postural asymmetry and sex differences in the rat. Dev. Brain Res. 2:417–419.
29. Rosen, G.D., Finklestein, S., Stoll, A.L., Yutzey, D.A., and Denenberg, V.H. 1984. Neonatal tail posture and its relationship to striatal dopamine asymmetry in the rat. Brain Res. 297:305–308.
30. Ross, D.A., Glick, S.D., and Meibach, R.C. 1982. Sexually dimorphic cerebral asymmetries in 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake during postnatal development of the rat: Correlations with age and relative activity. Dev. Brain Res. 3:341–347.
31. Yeni-Komshian, G.H., and Benson, D.A. 1976. Anatomical study of cerebral asymmetry in the temporal lobe of humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus monkeys. Science 192:387–389.
32. Gundara, N., and Zivanovic, S. 1968. Asymmetry in East African skulls. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 28:331–338.
33. LeMay, M., and Geschwind, N. 1975. Hemispheric differences in the brains of great apes. Brain Behav. Evol. 11:48–52.
34. LeMay, M. 1976. Morphological cerebral asymmetries of modern man, fossil man, and nonhuman primate. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 280:349–366.
35. Cain, D.P., and Wada, J.A. 1979. An anatomical asymmetry in the baboon brain. Brain Behav. Evol. 16:222–226.
36. Hadziselimovic, H., and Cus, H. 1966. The appearance of internal structures of the brain in relation to configuration of the human skuul. Acta Anat. 63:289–299.
37. Engbretson, G.A., Reiner, A., and Brecha, N. 1981. Habenular asymmetry and the central connections of the parietal eye of the lizard. J. Comp. Neurol. 198:155–165.
38. Braitenberg, V., and Kemali, N. 1971. Exceptions to bilateral symmetry in the epithalamus of lower vertebrates. J. Comp. Neurol. 138:137–146.
39. Kemali, M. 1983. Neuroanatomical asymmetry in the telencephalic hemispheres of the frog rana esculenta. Neurosci. Lett. 37:1–5.
40. Kemali, M., Guglielmotti, V., and Fiorino, L. 1990. The asymmetry of the habenular nuclei of female and male frogs in spring and in winter. Brain Res. 517:251–255.
41. Vota-Pinardi, U., and Kemali, M. 1990. Neuroelectrophysiology of the morphologically asymmetric habenulae of the frog. Comp Biochem Physiol 96A:421–424.
42. DeVoogd, T.J., Pyskaty, D.J., and Nottebohm, F. 1991. Lateral asymmetries and testosterone-induced changes in the gross morphology of the hypoglossal nucleus in adult canaries. J. Comp. Neurol. 307:65–76.
43. Diamond, M.C., Johnson, R.E., and Ingham, C.A. 1975. Morphological changes in the young, adult and aging rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and diencephalon. Behav. Biol. 14:163–174.
44. Kolb, B., Sutherland, R.J., Nonneman, A.J., and Whishaw, I.Q. 1982. Asymmetry in the cerebral hemispheres of the rat, mouse, rabbit, and cat: The right hemisphere is larger. Exp. Neurol. 78:348–359.
45. Diamond, M.C., Young, D., Singh, S.S., and Johnson, R.E. 1981. Age-related morphological differences in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus: Male-female; right-left. Exp. Neurol. 81:1–13.
46. Fleming, D.E., Anderson, R.H., Rhees, R.W., Kinghorn, E., and Bakaitis, J. 1986. Effects of prenatal stress on sexually dimorphic asymmetries in the cerebral cortex of the male rat. Brain Res Bull 16:395–8.
47. Stewart, J., and Kolb, B. 1988. The effects of neonatal gonadectomy and prenatal stress on cortical thickness and asymmetry in rats. Behav. Neural Biol. 49:344-360.
48. Collins, R.L. 1985. On the inheritance of direction and degree of asymmetry. Pages 41–71 in Glick, S.D., Ed., Cerebral lateralization in nonhuman species. Academic Press, New York.
49. Galaburda, A.M., Corsiglia, J., Rosen, G.D., and Sherman, G.F. 1987. Planum temporale asymmetry: Reappraisal since Geschwind and Levitsky. Neuropsychologia 25:853–868.
50. Galaburda, A.M., Aboitiz, F., Rosen, G.D., and Sherman, G.F. 1986. Histological asymmetry in the primary visual cortex of the rat: Implications for mechanisms of cerebral asymmetry. Cortex 22:151–160.
51. Williams, R.W., and Rakic, P. 1988. Elimination of neurons from the rhesus monkey's lateral geniculate nucleus during development. J. Comp. Neurol. 272:424–436.
52. Rosen, G.D., Sherman, G.F., and Galaburda, A.M. 1993. Neuronal subtypes and anatomic asymmetry: Changes in neuronal number and cell-packing density. Neuroscience 56:833–839.
53. Celio, M.R., and Heizmann, C.W. 1981. Calcium-binding protein parvalbumin as a neuronal marker. Nature 293:300–302.
54. Kosaka, T., Katsumaru, H., Hama, K., Wu, J.-Y., and Heizmann, C.W. 1987. GABAergic neurons containing the Ca2+-binding protein parvalbumin in the rat hippocampus and dentate gyrus. Brain Res. 419:119–130.
55. McDonald, J.K., Parnavelas, J.G., Karamanlidis, A.N., and Brecha, N. 1982. The morphology and distribution of peptide-contaning neurons in the adult and developing cortex of the rat. II. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide. J. Neurocytol. 11:825–837.
56. Connor, J.R., and Peters, A. 1984. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactive neurons in rat visual cortex. Neuroscience 12:1027–1044.
57. Fontes, V. 1944. Morfologia do Cortex Cerebral (Desenvolvimento). Pages Instituto Antonio Aurelio da Costa Ferreirs, Lisbon.
58. Rakic, P. 1988. Specification of cerebral cortical areas. Science 241:170–176.
59. Walsh, C., and Cepko, C.L. 1993. Clonal dispersion in proliferative layers of developing cerebral cortex. Nature 362:632–635.
60. Walsh, C., and Cepko, C.L. 1992. Widespread dispersion of neuronal clones across functional regions of the cerebral cortex. Science 255:434–440.
61. Dehay, C., Giroud, P., Berland, M., Smart, I., and Kennedy, H. 1993. Modulation of the cell cycle contributes to the parcellation of the primate visual cortex. Nature 366:464–466.
62. Rosen, G.D., Sherman, G.F., and Galaburda, A.M. 1991. Ontogenesis of neocortical asymmetry: A [3H]thymidine study. Neuroscience 41:779–790.
63. Weiskrantz, L. 1977. On the role of cerebral commissures in animals. Pages 475–478 in Russell, I.S., van Hof, M.W., and Berlucchi, G., Ed., Structure and Function of Cerebral Commissures. University Park Press, Baltimore.
64. Rosen, G.D., Sherman, G.F., and Galaburda, A.M. 1989. Interhemispheric connections differ between symmetrical and asymmetrical brain regions. Neuroscience 33:525–533.
65. LeMay, M., and Culebras, A. 1972. Human brain: Morphologic differences in the hemispheres demonstrable by carotid arteriography. New Eng. J. Med. 287:168–170.
66. Witelson, S.F. 1985. The brain connection: The corpus callosum is larger in left handers. Science 229:665–668.
67. Denenberg, V.H., Kertesz, A., and Cowell, P.E. 1991. A factor analysis of the human's corpus callosum. Brain Res. 548:126–132.
68. Witelson, S.F. 1989. Hand and sex differences in the isthmus and genu of the human corpus callosum. A postmortem morphological study. Brain 112:779–835.
69. Witelson, S.F., and Nowakowski, R.S. 1991. Left out axons make men right: A hypothesis for the origin of handedness and functional asymmetry. Neuropsychologia 29:327–333.
70. O'Leary, D.D.M., Stanfield, B.B., and Cowan, W.M. 1981. Evidence that the early postnatal restriction of the cells of origin of the callosal projection is due to the elimination of axonal collaterals rather than to the death of neurons. Brain Res. 227:607–617.
71. Ivy, G.O., and Killackey, H.P. 1982. Ontogenetic changes in the projections of neocortical neurons. J. Neurosci. 2:735–743.
72. Rosen, G.D., and Harry, J.D. 1990. Brain volume estimation from serial section measurements: A comparison of methodologies. J. Neurosci. Meth. 35:115–124.